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Clinical renal transplantation is limited by the number of cadaver and living related donors. The use of kidneys from older donors and non-first-degree relatives, including grandparents, has increased the supply of organs for transplantation. The purpose of this study was to assess donor and recipient outcomes after living related renal transplants between grandparent donors and grandchild recipients. Fifteen living related renal transplants using grandparent donors were performed at the University of Minnesota from 1971 to 1995. All medical records from donors and recipients were retrospectively reviewed. In addition, all grandparents or, in one case, a surviving family member were contacted to obtain current information on medical health and feedback about the donation process. A current serum creatinine (Cr) level was obtained from 14 donors and 15 recipients. Statistical calculations were performed using the SAS system. Eleven grandmothers and four grandfathers, 34-70 yr old (mean, 55 yr) at the time of transplantation, donated a kidney to 15 grandchildren with end-stage renal disease. There were no major surgical complications in either group. One donor died from unrelated causes; the other 14 donors are alive with stable renal function (1.3 ± 0.3 mg/dL). Of 15 transplanted kidneys, 10 remain functional (Cr 1.3 ± 0.7 mg/dL) with 2- and 5-yr graft survival rates of 76% and 63%, respectively. Our results indicate that healthy grandparents provide an excellent population for living related kidney donation.