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Long-term mortality and morbidity was evaluated in 267 patients with a minimum follow-up of 10 yr and the physical status, graft function and quality of life in 15 patients with a functioning graft surviving for over 20 yr were reviewed. Actual patient and graft survival rates were 80.2% and 51.1% at 10 yr (n=267) and 56.4% and 32.7% at 20 yr (n=55), respectively. Although the rate of graft failure due to rejection was 4 times higher than that of patient death within 10 yr, it decreased to the level of patient death in the second decade. Dominant causes of death in patients with graft surviving for over 10 yr were hepatic failure due to viral hepatitis and malignancies. In 15 patients with graft currently surviving beyond 20 yr, while all patients have excellent graft function, malignancy occurred in 5, viral hepatitis in 3, aseptic necrosis in 3, and diabetes mellitus in one patient. No patient has suffered cardiovascular complications. Despite a high rate of morbidity, they show a satisfying status of rehabilitation (full time working 11/15, 73.3%). In order to attain more improved QOL in patients with long-term surviving renal transplant, close follow-up aiming at diminution of complications is required throughout the period after transplantation.