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From 1989 to 1997, we performed 159 pancreas transplantations (PTXs), including 117 simultaneous kidney-PTX (SKPT), 25 PTXs alone (PTA), and 17 sequential PTXs after kidney transplantations (PAKT). A total of 73 PTXs were performed with systemic-bladder (S-B) and 86 with portal-enteric (P-E) drainage. The need for allograft pancreatectomy (PCTY) may be considered as an index of technical morbidity after PTX. A total of 37 PCTYs (23%) were performed at a mean of 4.7 months after PTX. Twenty-seven PCTYs were performed within 1 month, 30 (81%) within 3 months, and the remaining seven more than 6 months after PTX. The incidence of PCTY did not differ according to type of transplantation: simultaneous kidney-PTX (SKPT) (23%), PTA (24%), and PAKT (23.5%). Indications for PCTY were thrombosis (23), rejection (9), infection (3), and pancreatitis (2). During the study, a total of 70 pancreas grafts were lost, with PCTY performed in 37 (53%). PCTY was directly related to the timing of graft loss; 77% of grafts lost within 3 months of PTX required PCTY, while 25% of grafts lost after 3 months resulted in PCTY (p < 0.01). The incidence of graft failure resulting in PCTY was similar according to type of transplantation: SKPT (55%), PTA (46%), and PAKT (50%). The incidence of PCTY was also similar according to technique of transplantation: 26% S-B versus 21% P-E, p = NS. However, the incidence of graft failure resulting in PCTY was higher in P-E (69%) versus S-B (43%) (p < 0.05) PTX recipients. Patient and kidney graft survival and pancreas retransplant graft survival rates were higher in PTX recipients with P-E drainage.PCTY is performed in over half of cases of pancreas allograft loss and is directly related to the timing and cause of graft loss. The incidence of PCTY is neither related to the type nor technique of PTX. The lower overall incidence of graft loss after PTX with P-E drainage is offset by a higher incidence of PCTY in these grafts that fail. These results suggest that whole-organ PTX with P-E drainage does not place the patient at an increased risk for PCTY and does not preclude successful pancreas retransplantation.