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The selection of patients for solitary pancreas transplantation (PTA) requires identification of individuals who will not develop acute renal dysfunction in response to immunosuppressants. A cyclosporine challenge test (CCT) was developed to predict post-PTA kidney dysfunction secondary to calcineurin inhibitor immunosuppressants. We now report on the long-term follow-up of patients who received a PTA after undergoing a CCT.Twelve potential PTA recipients were administered cyclosporine A (CsA) for 6 wk. Creatinine clearance (CrCl) was measured at 2, 4, and 6 wk. Those who did not fail the CCT received PTA. Baseline and post-transplant CrCl were retrospectively evaluated in the original cohort and in a group of matched patients who received PTA without a CCT.Of the original 12 recipients evaluated with the CCT, 6 received PTA. CrCl was followed for a mean of 45.8 months. Of the 4 who remained alive, 2 went on to develop renal failure (CrCl < 30 mL/min) at 18 and 65 months post-transplant. The baseline CrCl was higher in PTA recipients who had not been selected to be studied with CCT than those that were (117 ± 32 vs 78 ± 13 mL/min). By 12 months post-PTA, the CrCl was no longer different between the groups selected to be screened with CCT and those that were not.CCT may help predict risk for short-term changes in renal function (< 18 months) in response to CsA. CCT may be most helpful in candidates for PTA with borderline renal insufficiency (60-80 mL/min).