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Oxygen free-radical mediated lipid peroxidation has been implicated in many diseases such as chronic renal failure, hemodialysis and chronic kidney transplant rejection. However, insight into the role of free radical generation in kidney transplantation has been constrained by the limitations of current indexes of oxidant stress in vivo. Isoprostaglandin F2α type-III (iPF2α-III, formerly known as 8-iso-prostaglandin F2α) is emerging as a reliable marker of oxidant stress in vivo. The purpose of our study was to investigate iPF2α-III formation as an index of lipid peroxidation in the 5 d following kidney transplantation.Urinary iPF2α-III measurements were performed by enzyme immunoassay from day 1 to 5 in 11 patients undergoing kidney transplantation. Results were compared with 11 healthy volunteers matched in sex, age and cigarette smoking.Urinary excretion of iPF2α-III at day 1 did not significantly differ between control and transplant group (111 ± 17 vs. 92 ± 10 pM/mM creatinine, respectively, NS). Urinary iPF2α-III levels did not differ between day 1 to 5, and were not correlated to cold ischaemia time.Our study shows no evidence of enhanced lipid peroxidation in the first 5 d following kidney transplantation.