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One immunologic element of the immune system is the CD30 molecule which belongs to the TNF-R superfamily. CD30 can serve as a T-cell signal transducing molecule and is expressed by a subset of activated T lymphocytes, CD45RO+ memory T cells. Augmentation of soluble CD30 during kidney transplant (Tx) rejection has been reported. Our study was to determine if the level of sCD30 prior to heart transplant (HTx) could categorize the patients (pts) into high or low immunologic risk for post-Tx outcome.Pre-Tx sera from 100 consecutive HTx recipients were studied. sCD30 was detected by ELISA using the commercially available CD30 monoclonal antibody. Level of sCD30 was correlated with two-yr Tx outcome.Significant correlation was seen between the high level of sCD30 and lower incidence of infection. Four of the 35 pts with pre-Tx high level of sCD30 level (>90 U/mL) developed infection post-Tx. However, 31/65 pts who had a low level of sCD30 (<90 U/mL) developed infection post-transplantation (p < 0.0003). No remarkable differences were noted with the other clinical parameters, including mean hospitalization, 3A biopsy rejection or death.We report for the first time that the high level of sCD30 prior to the HTx may be associated with a higher immunologic ability of the pts and therefore, may have a protective effect in the development of infection post-Tx.