Multidrug-resistant and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis: a review of current concepts and future challenges

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Abstract

Multidrug-resistant and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis are recent global health issues, which makes tuberculosis – after the success of short course treatment during the second half of the last century – a major health challenge. Globalisation, health inequalities, competing economic interests and political instability contribute substantially to the spread of drug-resistant strains, which are associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality. Issues such as increasing transmission of drug-resistant strains, poor diagnostic coverage and a lengthy, toxic treatment need to be overcome by innovative approaches to tuberculosis control, prevention, diagnostics and treatment. This review addresses recent developments and future concepts.

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