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Sepsis is a common and often devastating medical emergency with a high mortality rate and, in many survivors, long-term morbidity. It is defined as the dysregulated host response to infection resulting in organ dysfunction, and its incidence is increasing as the population ages. However, it is a treatable and potentially reversible condition, especially if identified and treated promptly. A sound understanding of sepsis is crucial for optimal care. Although general guidelines are available for management, here we provide a foundation of understanding to encourage thoughtful, personalised management of sepsis during the acute phase. We provide an overview of the epidemiology, the new Sepsis-3 definitions, pathophysiology, clinical presentations, and investigation and management of sepsis for the non-expert.