Glasgow Blatchford Score and risk stratifications in acute upper gastrointestinal bleed: can we extend this to 2 for urgent outpatient management?

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Upper gastrointestinal (GI) bleeds are a common presentation to emergency departments in the UK. The Glasgow Blatchford score (GBS) predicts the outcome of patients at presentation. Current UK and European guidelines recommend outpatient management for a GBS of 0. In the current study, our aim was to assess whether extending the GBS allows for early discharge while maintaining patient safety. We also analysed whether pathologies could be missed by discharging patients too early. Data were retrospectively collected on patients admitted with symptoms of an upper GI bleed between 1 October 2013 and 10 June 2016. The GBS was calculated and gastroscopy reports were obtained for each patient. In total, 399 patients were identified, 63 of whom required therapy. The negative predictive value (NPV) for excluding the need for endoscopic intervention with a GBS score up to 1 was 100%. Extending the score to 2 and 3 reduced the NPV to 98.53% and 98.77%, respectively. The NPV of GBS in excluding any diagnosis at 0 was 43.55%. Two patients died as a result of GI bleeding, with a GBS score of 3. Therefore, we can conclude that, for non-variceal bleeds, the GBS can be extended to 2 for safe outpatient management, thereby reducing the number of bed days and pressure for urgent endoscopies.

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