Cardiac amyloidosis

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Systemic amyloidosis comprises an uncommon group of disorders caused by the extracellular deposition of misfolded proteins in various organs. Cardiac amyloid deposition, causing an infiltrative/restrictive cardiomyopathy, is a frequent feature of amyloidosis and a major determinant of survival. It may be the presenting feature of the disease or may be identified while investigating a patient presenting with other organ involvement. The need for a high index of suspicion and the critical importance of precise biochemical typing of the amyloid deposits is paramount in light of recent therapeutic advances that can significantly improve prognosis. Most cases of cardiac amyloidosis are of either transthyretin type, which may be acquired in older individuals or inherited in younger patients, or acquired monoclonal immunoglobulin light chain (AL) type. This article aims to review recent developments in diagnosis and management of cardiac amyloidosis.

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