The natural history of KPC-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae (KPC KP) carriage is unknown. We aimed to examine the duration of KPC KP carriage following hospital discharge and to study the risk factors for persistent carriage. A cohort of 125 KPC KP carriers was followed monthly for between 3 and 6 months after discharge from an acute-care hospital. Rectal swabs and data were collected at baseline and at each visit. KPC KP was detected by culture and direct blaKPC PCR. Acquisition time was regarded as the earliest date of KPC KP isolation. Resolution of carriage was defined as a negative KPC KP test in at least two consecutive samples. Analyses were separated for recent (<4 months) (REC, 75 patients) and remote (≥4 months) (REM, 50 patients) acquisition groups. Risk factors for persistent carriage were examined by survival analyses for the REC group and by prevalence methods for the REM group. The mean age of patients was 67.5 years and 49.6% were male. Forty-six (61%) patients in the REC group and 14 (28%) in the REM group were persistent carriers (p < 0.001). A significant risk factor for persistent carriage identified in both the REC and REM groups was the presence of any catheter (p < 0.05). Unique risk factor groups included long-term care facility (LTCF) residence (p < 0.01) and a low functional status as measured by the Barthel's index (p < 0.05) in the REC group and high Charlson's score in the REM group (p < 0.05). Out of the entire 100 patients who had at least one negative sample, only 65 remained negative on subsequent cultures. In conclusion, persistent carriage of KPC KP is associated with catheter use and a low functional status; it is more common in patients with recent acquisition and is related to LTCF stay. A single negative KPC KP test is insufficient to exclude persistent carriage.