Global trends in the distribution ofCandidaspecies causing candidemia

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Only five species account for 92% of cases of candidemia (Candida albicans, C. glabrata, C. tropicalis, C. parapsilosis, and C. krusei); however, their distribution varies in population-based studies conducted in different geographical areas. C. albicans is the most frequent species, but considerable differences are found between the number of cases caused by C. glabrata and C. parapsilosis. Studies from Northern Europe and the USA reported a high number of cases caused by C. glabrata, whereas studies from Spain and Brazil demonstrated a lower number of cases caused by C. glabrata and a higher number of cases attributed to C. parapsilosis. Globally, the frequency of C. albicans is decreasing, while that of C. glabrata and C. krusei is stable, and C. parapsilosis and C. tropicalis are increasing. Patient characteristics and prior antifungal therapy also have a considerable influence on the distribution and frequency of Candida spp., regardless of the geographical area. C. albicans is more frequent in patients aged up to 18 years, the frequency of C. parapsilosis decreases with age, and C. glabrata is more common in the elderly. Finally, the presence of horizontal transmission of Candida spp. isolates (reported mainly in patients from the adult medical and post-surgical ICU, patients from oncology–haematology units, and neonates) can affect species distribution.

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