Invasion of CNS in MM is an extremely rare occurrence that is associated with advanced disease with poor prognosis.Patients and Methods:
Our MM database identified 35 CNS MM cases presenting between January 1996 and March 2012. Descriptive analyses were performed on available data on patient characteristics, disease course, and outcomes.Results:
The mean age at diagnosis was 55.4 years; 23.5% (n = 8) patients had elevated levels of beta-2-microglobulin > 5.5 mg/L; 68.6% (n = 24) of patients had elevated lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels (≥ 2 times upper limit of normal); and 14% (n = 5) of patients had secondary plasma cell leukemia. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which was performed in 34 patients, showed diffuse or localized leptomeningeal disease in 20 patients (58.8%). Monoclonal malignant plasma cells were found by CSF analysis in all 35 patients. In total, 31 patients received chemotherapy, including intrathecal chemotherapy as a part of their treatment, with a median survival of 4 months after CNS MM diagnosis.Discussion:
In our experience, CNS MM is an aggressive terminal disease feature associated with high beta-2-microglobulin level, high LDH level, and secondary plasma cell leukemia. This study highlights an unmet need in this subset of patients with high-risk, relapsed or refractory MM.Conclusion:
Achieving adequate CSF penetration while limiting the off-target effects needs to be considered in MM-specific novel drug development.