Patterns of Central Nervous System Involvement in Relapsed and Refractory Multiple Myeloma

    loading  Checking for direct PDF access through Ovid

Abstract

Background:

Invasion of CNS in MM is an extremely rare occurrence that is associated with advanced disease with poor prognosis.

Patients and Methods:

Our MM database identified 35 CNS MM cases presenting between January 1996 and March 2012. Descriptive analyses were performed on available data on patient characteristics, disease course, and outcomes.

Results:

The mean age at diagnosis was 55.4 years; 23.5% (n = 8) patients had elevated levels of beta-2-microglobulin > 5.5 mg/L; 68.6% (n = 24) of patients had elevated lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels (≥ 2 times upper limit of normal); and 14% (n = 5) of patients had secondary plasma cell leukemia. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which was performed in 34 patients, showed diffuse or localized leptomeningeal disease in 20 patients (58.8%). Monoclonal malignant plasma cells were found by CSF analysis in all 35 patients. In total, 31 patients received chemotherapy, including intrathecal chemotherapy as a part of their treatment, with a median survival of 4 months after CNS MM diagnosis.

Discussion:

In our experience, CNS MM is an aggressive terminal disease feature associated with high beta-2-microglobulin level, high LDH level, and secondary plasma cell leukemia. This study highlights an unmet need in this subset of patients with high-risk, relapsed or refractory MM.

Conclusion:

Achieving adequate CSF penetration while limiting the off-target effects needs to be considered in MM-specific novel drug development.

Related Topics

    loading  Loading Related Articles