Multiple myeloma is a cancer of the immune system. Infection is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with multiple myeloma. Some of these infections are preventable by vaccines available to the general population. However, little is known about the clinical effectiveness of these vaccines in patients with multiple myeloma, and the cellular and humoral immune response to vaccination has not been well characterized, especially in conjunction with modern myeloma therapies. The present report reviews the basics of multiple myeloma and the immune system, the available evidence on the immunologic response of patients with multiple myeloma after vaccination, and current practice recommendations regarding specific vaccines. Understanding the immune response to vaccines could help us understand how immuno-oncology–based therapies work in multiple myeloma and provide future directions for research.