Increased Bone Marrow Iron Scores Are Strongly Correlated With Elevated Serum Ferritin Levels and Poorer Survival in Patients With Iron Overload That Underwent Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation: A Single Center Experience

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Abstract

Micro-Abstract

Iron overload (IO) is one of the most important complications of chronic red blood cell transfusions in patients that receive chemotherapy or undergo hematopoieteic stem cell transplantation. Bone marrow is among the major sites of IO. This study showed that increased bone marrow iron content might predict poor survival in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation recipients and that bone marrow evaluations prior to transplantation would be a valuable method to diagnose IO.

Background:

Iron overload is one of the most significant problems as a leading cause of death in patients with leukemia and those who underwent allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (alloHSCT).

Methods:

In the current study, we retrospectively evaluated the bone marrow iron scores (BMIS) in patients who underwent alloHSCT (n = 125). The first available bone marrow biopsy specimens prior to the alloHSCT procedure or date of hospitalization (control group) were assessed in a blinded fashion using a standardized scoring system.

Results:

A total of 125 patients were enrolled in the study. Seventy-six (60.8%) of the patients were male, and 49 (39.2%) were female. The median level of pre-transplant serum ferritin was 1023.00 ng/mL (range, 393.80-1627.50 ng/mL). The majority of the patients were diagnosed with acute leukemia (83; 66.4%) and lymphomas (20; 16.0%). The median time for neutrophil engraftment was 14.00 days (range, 13.00-16.00 days) and 11.00 days (range, 10.00-14.00 days) for platelet engraftment. The peri-transplant mortality was similar to international mortality rates (3; 2.4%). The overall survival and disease-free survival were strongly correlated with the degree of BMIS, and both were significantly poorer in patients with high bone marrow iron content (P < .001 and P = .012, respectively).

Conclusion:

The validation of BMIS for risk stratification in patients who undergo alloHSCT may predict posttransplant outcomes.

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