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Activity-based costing (ABC) was developed and advocated as a means of overcoming the systematic distortions of traditional cost accounting.We calculated the cost of high-dose chemotherapy and autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) in patients with multiple myeloma using the ABC method, through 2 different care models: the total inpatient model (TIM) and the early-discharge outpatient model (EDOM) and compared this with the approved diagnosis related-groups (DRG) Italian tariffs.The TIM and EDOM models involved a total cost of €28,615.15 and €16,499.43, respectively. In the TIM model, the phase with the greatest economic impact was the posttransplant (recovery and hematologic engraftment) with 36.4% of the total cost, whereas in the EDOM model, the phase with the greatest economic impact was the pretransplant (chemo-mobilization, apheresis procedure, cryopreservation, and storage) phase, with 60.4% of total expenses. In an analysis of each episode, the TIM model comprised a higher absorption than the EDOM. In particular, the posttransplant represented 36.4% of the total costs in the TIM and 17.7% in EDOM model, respectively. The estimated reduction in cost per patient using an EDOM model was over €12,115.72. The repayment of the DRG in Calabrian Region for the ASCT procedure is €;59,806. Given the real cost of the transplant, the estimated cost saving per patient is €31,190.85 in the TIM model and €43,306.57 in the EDOM model.In conclusion, the actual repayment of the DRG does not correspond to the real cost of the ASCT procedure in Italy. Moreover, using the EDOM, the cost of ASCT is approximately the half of the TIM model.We calculated the cost of autologous stem cell transplantation in multiple myeloma using the activity-based costing method, through two different care model: total inpatient program (TIM) and Early-Discharge Outpatient Model (EDOM). TIM and EDOM models involved a total cost of €28.615,15 and €16.499,43. The repayment of the diagnosis-related group (DRG) in Italy is approximately €50.000 and it does not correspond to the real cost of the procedure.