Outcomes of Adolescents and Young Adults With Acute Myeloid Leukemia Treated in a Single Latin American Center

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Abstract

Introduction

The outcomes for adolescents and young adults (AYAs) with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) have been poorly characterized in Hispanics in low- to middle-income countries. The results are influenced by biologic and socioeconomic factors. The clinical paths for AYA patients with AML are reported.

Patients and Methods

A retrospective analysis of AYA and pediatric AML patients aged 1 to 39 years during 2003 to 2016 from a single reference center in Northeast Mexico treated with a 7+3 standard protocol was performed. The 5-year overall survival (OS) and event-free survival (EFS) were estimated using Kaplan-Meier analysis. The hazard ratios for relapse and death were estimated using a Cox regression model. The patients with promyelocytic leukemia were analyzed separately.

Results

The study included 110 non-PML AML patients, 39 children and 71 AYAs. No difference in complete remission was found (P = .446), although the overall response rate was greater in the children (87.2% vs. 69% in AYAs; P = .034). The 5-year EFS rate was 33% for the children versus 9.3% in the AYAs at a median follow-up of 22 and 9 months, respectively (P = .008). The 5-year OS rate was 51% in the children and 22% in the AYAs (P = .001). Of the 44 AYAs with complete remission, 29 (65%) developed a relapse. Of the 39 children and 71 AYAs, 20 children (51.3%) and 21 AYAs (29.6%) underwent transplantation (P = .024). Patients with refractory disease had a 1-year OS rate of 14.4%. Older age (hazard ratio [HR], 2.55; P = .002) and white blood cell count > 50 × 109/L (HR, 1.79; P = .023) were significant for death, and transplantation was protective (HR, 0.57; P = .023).

Conclusion

Low EFS and OS rates were found for AML patients in the AYA group. To improve survival rates, intensified chemotherapy regimens and early hematopoietic stem cell transplantation are needed.

Micro-Abstract

Hispanic patients aged < 40 years with a diagnosis of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) during 2003 to 2016 in Northeast Mexico were evaluated. The group included 46 children and 88 adolescents and young adults (AYAs) aged 15 to 39 years. A greater overall response rate was found in the children (87.2% vs. 69% in AYAs). Low event-free and overall survival rates for AYA patients with AML were documented.

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