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The hematologic response is critical in patients with light chain amyloidosis because a good response is known to improve organ response and overall survival. We present a retrospective analysis to compare the hematologic and organ response in patients who received bortezomib-based therapy before autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) versus those who received non–bortezomib-based therapy before ASCT and those who underwent ASCT at diagnosis.Of a total of 63 patients who underwent ASCT for light chain amyloidosis, 34 received bortezomib-based therapy before ASCT (Bor-ASCT) and 29 did not receive bortezomib therapy (non-Bor-ASCT). A greater number of patients had involvement of ≥ 3 organs and cardiac involvement in the Bor-ASCT group, suggesting a greater risk at baseline in the Bor-ASCT group.At 3, 6, and 12 months after ASCT, the hematologic response was better in the Bor-ASCT group, with a statistically significance difference at 6 months (partial response or better in 82% vs. 20%; P = .002) and 12 months (partial response or better in 76% vs. 33%; P = .02). Organ responses (66% vs. 21%; P < .001) and median overall survival (not reached vs. 53 months; P = .001) were also greater in the Bor-ASCT group.Our study has shown that bortezomib-based therapy before ASCT improves the hematologic response, organ response and overall survival, potentially by decreasing the light chain load before ASCT.We performed a retrospective study to compare the hematologic response, organ response, and overall survival in patients with light chain amyloidosis, receiving bortezomib-based therapy before autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) versus non–bortezomib-based therapy or no therapy before ASCT. In the present study, although the patients who received bortezomib before transplantation were at greater risk at baseline, we found significantly better outcomes in these patients.