The purpose of this study was to establish hand dermatitis (HD) risk factors among Japanese nurses. A questionnaire was administered to 1,162 clinical nurses, from whom 860 replies were received (response rate of 74.0%). Their overall HD prevalence was 53.3%. Several risk factors were identified: using latex gloves (odds ratio [OR] 1.9), allergies in adulthood (OR 2.7), urticaria as an adult (OR 1.5), atopic dermatitis as an adult (OR 2.7), any allergies to latex products (OR 5.2), skin irritation following contact with latex (OR 4.1), contact dermatitis following contact with latex (OR 3.5), family history of hay fever (OR 1.6), and family history of atopic dermatitis (OR 1.9). The use of hand cream was associated with a 50% reduction in HD risk (OR 0.5). In this study, we found that Japanese clinical nurses suffer a significant occupational burden from HD. As such, it is essential that hospital managers consider interventions to reduce this troublesome occupational disease among clinical nurses in Japan, as elsewhere.