The purpose of this study was to develop a transition nursing program for patients and family caregivers in neurological intensive care units (ICUs) and to evaluate the effects of the program. A literature review, focus group interviews, analysis of medical records, confirmation of validity, and clinical applicability were used to develop the program, which was tested using a pre- and post-test quasi-experimental design. Participants were recruited in 2011. The experimental group (46 patients and their family caregivers) received the developed program before transferring from the neurological ICU to a ward, whereas the control group (48 patients and their family caregivers) received routine care. The results showed that patients and family caregivers in the experimental group had significantly higher transition readiness and satisfaction with transition nursing and lower transition anxiety and transition stress, and family caregivers in the experimental group had a significantly lower burden of caregiving.