The purpose of this study was to explore quality of life (QoL) and the factors influencing QoL in gynecological cancer patients. One hundred sixty-seven patients with gynecologic cancers were recruited from a district hospital in Southern Taiwan. The instruments used included the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire Core-30 Version 3.0 in Chinese (EORTC QLQ-C30), the Symptom Distress Scale, and demographic characteristics and disease-related variables. The results showed that the mean score for the QLQ-C30 was 61.13 (SD = 22.71). In the stepwise regression model, two factors predicted overall global QoL: symptom distress (33.8%) and current occupation (2.2%). These predictors accounted for 36.0% of the total variance. These results showed that symptom distress was a predictor of QoL. This study provides a reference for use when designing improved educational care programs that reduce patient symptom distress and enhance gynecologic cancer patients’ QoL.