A Review of the Neurological and Neurosurgical Implications of Down Syndrome in Children

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Abstract

Down syndrome is the most commonly encountered chromosomal translation and has been associated with significant congenital abnormalities in various organ systems. Along with classic facial findings, it may involve the gastroenterologic, cardiac, ophthalmologic, endocrine, immunologic, orthopedic, or neurologic systems. With respect to the neurological system, a higher incidence of moyamoya, seizure disorders, strokes, and spinal ligamentous laxity has been described in these children. We have summarized the current available literature with respect to children who have Down syndrome and the varying neurological pathologic entities associated to help health care providers better understand these patients.

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