Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is associated with various prenatal risks and postnatal adverse outcomes. The aim of this study is to choose the most sensitive newborn anthropometric measure, which is closely associated with IUGR-related risks and outcomes, to substitute IUGR after delivery. Data were obtained from the Collaborative Perinatal Project, a multicenter prospective cohort study in the United States from 1959 to 1976. Maternal heavy smoking and severe hypertensive disorders during pregnancy, neonatal polycythemia and hypothermia, low intelligence quotient (<70) at age 7 years were chosen as IUGR-related risks and outcomes. Eight anthropometric measures at birth were tested by logistic regression model. Birth weight-to-head circumference (W/HC) had the largest odds ratio (OR) for neonatal polycythemia (OR = 1.8, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.5–2.0), severe hypertensive disorders (OR = 1.9, 95% CI = 1.5–2.2), and maternal heavy smoking (OR = 1.9, 95% CI = 1.7–2.1) during pregnancy. It also had the highest summary OR (9.3). Thus, W/HC may be a good measure for IUGR.