Incidence, Trends, and Outcomes of Cerebral Edema Among Children With Diabetic Ketoacidosis in the United States

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There are limited data regarding the incidence, trends, and outcomes of cerebral edema among patients with diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA).


NIS database was used from year 2002 to 2012. Cases with primary diagnosis of DKA were identified using International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision-Clinical Modification (ICD-9 CM) code 250.1 x. Cerebral edema patients were identified using ICD-9 CM code 348.5. We compared the baseline characteristics of both groups to estimate differences using the χ2 test, Student's t test, Wilcoxon rank-sum test, and survey regression depending on the distributions of variables. For trend analysis, the χ2 test of trend for proportions was used using the Cochrane Armitage test via the “trend” command in Statistical Analysis Software (SAS). Multivariate odds ratios were calculated. P value for <0.05 was considered as significant for all analysis.


In all, 205 (weighted n = 974) cases of cerebral edema were identified among 52 049 (weighted n = 246 925) DKA patients, which estimates the incidence of cerebral edema at 0.39%. Trends of incidence of developing cerebral edema increased almost 2 times, from 0.34 in 2002 to 0.64 in 2012 (P < 0.001). Univariate analysis showed that both length of stay (LOS; 3 vs 2; P < 0.001) and cost of hospitalization ($10 530 vs $3953; P < 0.001) were statistically higher among those who developed cerebral edema.


Our study shows that over the study period, trend in incidence of cerebral edema among DKA patients has increased. Patients with cerebral edema were found to have longer LOS and higher cost of hospitalization.

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