Patterns of Childhood Steroid-Sensitive and Steroid-Resistant Nephrotic Syndrome in Saudi Children: Clinicopathological Study of 87 Cases

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Nephrotic syndrome (NS) is one of the most common causes of chronic kidney disease in children. Mostly, NS is controlled by steroids. In spite of this, 10% to 20% of the patients have steroid resistant NS (SRNS), and the rest have steroid sensitive NS (SSNS). Eighty-seven children with NS (66 SSNS; 21SRNS) were retrospectively studied within the past 10 years in Taif region of Saudi Arabia. Regarding outcome, 66 (76%) patient responded to the steroid therapy, while 21 (24%) patients characterize as SRNS. Out of 66 SSNS, 25 children revealed complete remission, 26 were diagnosed as steroid dependent, and 15 were identified as frequent relapses. Among 21 SRNS biopsied patients, focal segmental glomerulosclerosis was the most common histological patterns of NS followed by the membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis pattern, which is significantly different from other studies performed in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Out of 21 SRNS patients, 13 developed chronic kidney disease, 4 got end-stage renal disease, and 4 patients died.

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