An Evaluation of Seasonal Variation of Nonaccidental Fractures in Children Less Than 1 Year of Age

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The aim of this study was to identify seasonal variation in nonaccidental injury (NAI) in children <1 year of age. Fifty consecutive patients age ≤12 months with a fracture were identified between January 2010 and June 2012. Patients’ records were reviewed for demographic, clinical, and radiographic data. Zip code was used to collect socioeconomic data. Out of 50 patients included in the study, fractures in 16 (32%) patients were reported for abuse. NAI was reported in 2/13 (15%) fracture cases presenting in the spring, 5/6 (83%) in summer, 6/15 (40%) in autumn, and 3/14 (21%) in winter. The ratio of NAI to accidental injury was highest in the summer. Presentation in summer was associated with NAI (P < .001). In addition, NAI was associated with parental unemployment, single parents, and lower socioeconomic status (P < .001). Seasonal variation occurred, and the most common season for NAI was the summer; also, NAI in children <1 year of age was associated with parental unemployment, single parent, and poverty.

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