AbstractBackground and Objective
Dalcetrapib, a cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) modulator, is a thioester prodrug that is rapidly hydrolysed to generate a pharmacologically active thiol. The thiol covalently binds to plasma proteins as mixed disulfides, extensively distributes into plasma lipoprotein fractions, and is principally cleared by metabolism, including extensive first-pass metabolism. Here we report two studies assessing the effects of hepatic and renal impairment on the pharmacokinetics of the thiol and its primary metabolites.Methods
Adults with hepatic or renal impairment and healthy controls were recruited in two separate non-randomized, open-label studies. Eligible subjects were aged 18–70 years (hepatic impairment study) or 18–75 years (renal impairment study) with a body mass index 18–40 kg/m2. Healthy controls were matched by age, bodyweight and sex. Each participant received a single 600 mg oral dose of dalcetrapib. Plasma and urine sampling was performed up to 3–4 days post-dalcetrapib administration for analysis of the pharmacokinetics of the thiol and its primary S-methyl and S-glucuronide metabolites. In the renal impairment study, CETP activity and mass, and lipid profiles were also assessed.Results
Twenty-eight subjects were enrolled in the hepatic impairment study (mild or moderate hepatic impairment, n = 8 in each group; controls, n = 12). Thirty-five subjects participated in the renal impairment study (mild, moderate or severe renal impairment, n = 8 in each group; controls, n = 11). In patients with moderate hepatic impairment, the area under the plasma concentration-time curve from time zero to infinity (AUC∞) for thiol exposure was increased 34 % (geometric mean ratio [GMR] 1.34, 90 % CI 1.02–1.76), compared with matched controls. Regression analysis revealed a weak inverse relationship between thiol exposure and creatinine clearance (p = 0.0137, r2= 17.1 %). In patients with moderate or severe renal impairment, thiol exposures were 62 % (AUC∞ GMR 1.62, 90 % CI 0.81–3.27) and 81 % (AUC∞ GMR 1.81, 90 % CI 1.21–2.71) higher, respectively, than matched controls. Exposures of the S-glucuronide and S-methyl metabolites were also higher in hepatic and renal impairment groups. In the renal impairment study, CETP activity was decreased following administration of dalcetrapib, with no clear differences between groups.Conclusion
Hepatic and renal impairment both altered dalcetrapib pharmacokinetics and increased thiol exposure, with the extent of the effect dependent on the severity of impairment. The effect of renal impairment may be linked to altered distribution of the thiol, which illustrates the importance of assessing distribution to understand the causes and consequences of altered pharmacokinetics of thiol drugs in patient populations.