Orientation and mobility training for adults with low vision: a new standardized approach

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Orientation and mobility training aims to facilitate independent functioning and participation in the community of people with low vision.


(1) To gain insight into current practice regarding orientation and mobility training, and (2) to develop a theory-driven standardized version of this training to teach people with low vision how to orientate and be safe in terms of mobility.

Study of current practice:

Insight into current practice and its strengths and weaknesses was obtained via reviewing the literature, observing orientation and mobility training sessions (n = 5) and interviewing Dutch mobility trainers (n = 18). Current practice was mainly characterized by an individual, face-to-face orientation and mobility training session concerning three components: crystallizing client's needs, providing information and training skills. A weakness was the lack of a (structured) protocol based on evidence or theory.

New theory-driven training:

A new training protocol comprising two face-to-face sessions and one telephone follow-up was developed. Its content is partly based on the components of current practice, yet techniques from theoretical frameworks (e.g. social-cognitive theory and self-management) are incorporated.


A standardized, tailor-made orientation and mobility training for using the identification cane is available. The new theory-driven standardized training is generally applicable for teaching the use of every low-vision device. Its acceptability and effectiveness are currently being evaluated in a randomized controlled trial.

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