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To determine the effects of different intradialytic exercise training modalities on physical functioning and health-related quality of life of maintenance hemodialysis patients.We searched MEDLINE, Cochrane Trials Register and CINAHL for controlled trials that evaluated the effects of intradialytic exercise training for maintenance hemodialysis patients and published from the earliest available date to December 2017. Weighted mean difference and 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated, and heterogeneity was assessed using the I2 test.Fifty-six studies met the study criteria, comprising a total of 2586 patients. Compared with no exercise, combined aerobic and resistance exercise resulted in significant improvement in peak VO2 weighted mean difference (5.1 mL kg−1 min−1; 95% CI: 3.4, 6.8 mL kg−1 min−1), depression symptoms (−7.32; 95% CI −9.31, −5.33) and both physical function (10.67 points; 95% CI 1.08, 20.25 points) and vitality (10.01 points; 95% CI 4.30, 15.72 points) domains of health-related quality of life. Resistance exercise alone was significantly associated with improvement in the 6-minute walk test distance (30.2 m; 95% CI 24.6, 35.9 m), knee extensor strength (0.6 N; 95% CI 0.1, 1.0 N) and Physical Component Score of health-related quality of life (9.53 points; 95% CI −3.09, 22.15 points) when compared with control group. Aerobic exercise alone was not significantly associated with aerobic capacity and quality of life improvement.The results provide support to interventions that combine intradialytic aerobic and resistance exercises to improve physical functioning and quality of life in end-stage renal disease patients undergoing hemodialysis.