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Endometriosis is relatively common condition in fertile women and may affect the alimentary tract. Laparoscopic rectosigmoid resection for endometriosis has been found to be both feasible and safe. The aim of the present study was to prospectively evaluate the quality of life and sexual function of patients who have undergone rectosigmoid resection for endometriosis.All patients undergoing rectal or sigmoid resection for endometriosis in two specialist hospitals were prospectively recruited in the study. Details regarding demography, endometriosis-related symptoms, procedure and postoperative recovery were collected. One year after the operation patients were sent a postal questionnaire asking about endometriosis-related symptoms, quality of life and sexual functioning. The 15D Questionnaire and McCoy Female Sexuality Questionnaire were used for this purpose.A total of 26 patients responded to the 15D questionnaire. Endometriosis-related bowel symptoms decreased significantly after the operation. The responses showed improvements in the overall score and scores for five different dimensions (usual activities, P = 0.04; discomfort and symptoms, P < 0.001; distress, P < 0.001; vitality, P < 0.001; sexual activity, P < 0.001). Sexual satisfaction was greater 1 year after the operation (P = 0.01). Sexual problems and partner satisfaction scores had not changed significantly.Laparoscopic rectal and sigmoid resection for endometriosis significantly reduce endometriosis-related symptoms and improve quality of life and sexual well-being.