Associations Between Body Mass and Revision Surgical Outcomes in Adult Scoliosis

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Abstract

Study Design:

Retrospective cohort study.

Objective:

To determine whether an association exists between high body mass index (BMI>25 kg/m2) and surgical outcomes in revision adult scoliosis patients.

Summary of Background Data:

Obesity is thought to be associated with increased surgical complications and inferior clinical outcomes in adults. There are no studies analyzing the effect of obesity on surgical outcomes in revision patients for adult scoliosis.

Methods:

Forty-five consecutive revision adult scoliosis patients (35 women and 10 men; mean age, 62.7±9.3 y) with a minimum follow-up of 2 years were included in this study. Patients were divided into 2 groups according to BMI: overweight (BMI≥25 kg/m2, n=27) and nonoverweight (<25 kg/m2, n=18). Radiographic measures, Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), Visual Analog Scale (VAS), as well as comorbidities and complications were reviewed and compared at preoperative and 2-year follow-up.

Results:

No significant differences in surgical methods, complication rates, or radiographic measures were found between the 2 groups except for the greater preoperative and final follow-up thoracic kyphosis in the overweight group (P<0.05). A higher comorbidity rate of circulatory disorders (33.3% vs. 0%, P=0.018) and diabetes (25.9% vs. 0%, P=0.053) was observed in the overweight group, as well as a higher preoperative VAS score (7.1±1.7 vs. 5.2±2.9, P=0.031). At 2-year follow-up, VAS and ODI improvements for both groups showed significant and similar improvement from preoperative (P<0.01).

Conclusions:

Overweight revision adult scoliosis patients had higher thoracic kyphosis and more significant preoperative pain compared with normal-weight individuals. Overweight patients also had significantly higher rates of medical comorbidities. However, BMI did not affect the functional outcome of surgical correction or perioperative complication rates. Overweight patients benefited from surgery just as much as nonoverweight patients at 2-year follow-up.

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