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Retrospective study using the MarketScan longitudinal database (2006–2010).Compare complication rates between groups of patients undergoing anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) procedures performed by surgeons with high versus low mean annual ACDF volume.Over the past decade the volume of ACDFs performed has increased, concurrent with greater appreciation of potential for associated complications. The effect of surgeon procedure volume on adverse events occurrence in the postoperative period has not been described.We evaluated the relationship between surgeon procedure volume and postoperative incidence of any complication using a multivariate logistic regression model. A total of 24,461 patients undergoing single and multiple level ACDFs were identified in the MarketScan database by Current Procedural Terminology coding. Annual surgeon volume was determined by tracking of anonymized surgeon identification numbers, with high-volume surgeons defined as those performing an average of at least 30 ACDF procedures annually.Over 50% of unique surgeon identifiers reported <9 ACDF operations per year, whereas the highest decile reported a range of 44–101. High surgeon volume was protective for any complication [odds ratio (OR), 72; 95% confidence interval, 0.65–0.81; P<0.0001], with an adjusted number needed to harm of 44. Patients treated by high-volume physicians specifically had lower odds of dysphagia (2.22% vs. 3.08%; OR, 0.71; P<0.0013), neurological complications (0.33% vs. 0.64%; OR, 0.52; P<0.0107), new diagnosis of chronic pain (0.48% vs. 0.82%; OR, 0.58; P<0.0119), pulmonary complications (1.10% vs. 1.58%; OR, 0.69; P<0.0138), and other wound complications (0.06% vs. 0.22%; OR, 0.28; P<0.0242).We demonstrate a possible association between higher surgeon procedure volume and decreased postoperative complications after ACDF. There was no difference observed in need for revision surgery or readmission rates.