Hyperlipidemia is a common feature after organ transplantation. Most studies have evaluated the lipid profile in recipients of a particular graft, usually renal. In the present work, we studied the lipid profiles of 30 long-term stable liver transplant patients (LTP) and compared their pattern with 40 long-term stable renal transplant patients (RTP) matched for gender, age, and time from transplantation. There were no significant differences between both groups in body mass index, serum glucose, serum creatinine, or urinary protein excretion. In contrast, RTP had higher pre-transplant total cholesterol and triglycerides, received higher doses of steroids (both average and cumulative) and had higher cycosplorine blood levels. After a mean time of 60 months after transplantation, RTP exhibited higher levels of total serum cholesterol (226 ± 26 vs. 180 ± 39 mg/dl; p=0.000 002) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (152 ± 22 vs. 112 ± 37 mg/dl; p = 0.00001). In contrast, there were no differences between RTP and LTP in high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) cholesterol, total triglycerides, VLDL triglycerides, or lipoprotein (a) [Lp(a)]. By univariate analysis in the whole group, renal graft, prednisone daily dose, cyclosporine blood levels, pre-transplant cholesterol, and triglycerides were associated with increased post-transplant cholesterol levels. By multivariate analysis, prednisone daily dose was the only independent variable predicting increased post-transplant serum cholesterol levels. The present data show that hypercholesterolemia is more frequent among RTP than among LTP. In addition, our data suggest that corticosteroid therapy, rather than the transplanted organ, may be the major contributor to this difference.