ASIC1a, the predominant acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs), is implicated in neurological disorders including stroke, traumatic spinal cord injury, and ALS. Potent ASIC1a inhibitors should have promising therapeutic potential for ASIC1a-related diseases.Aims
We examined the inhibitory effects of a number of amiloride analogs on ASIC1a currents, aimed at understanding the structure–activity relationship and identifying potent ASIC1a inhibitors for stroke intervention.Methods
Whole-cell patch-clamp techniques and a mouse model of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO)-induced focal ischemia were used. Surflex-Dock was used to dock the analogs into the pocket with default parameters.Results
Amiloride and its analogs inhibit ASIC1a currents expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells with a potency rank order of benzamil > phenamil > 5-(N,N-dimethyl)amiloride (DMA) > amiloride > 5-(N,N-hexamethylene)amiloride (HMA) ≥ 5-(N-methyl-N-isopropyl)amiloride (MIA) > 5-(N-ethyl-N-isopropyl)amiloride (EIPA). In addition, amiloride and its analogs inhibit ASIC currents in cortical neurons with the same potency rank order. In mice, benzamil and EIPA decreased MCAO-induced infarct volume. Similar to its effect on the ASIC current, benzamil showed a much higher potency than EIPA.Conclusion
Addition of a benzyl group to the terminal guanidinyl group resulted in enhanced inhibitory activity on ASIC1a. On the other hand, the bulky groups added to the 5-amino residues slightly decreased the activity. Among the tested amiloride analogs, benzamil is the most potent ASIC1a inhibitor.