Changes in Provider Perceptions of Family Presence During Resuscitation

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The purpose of this study was to measure changes in perceptions of healthcare providers (HCPs) in the cardiac intensive care unit (CICU) before and after an implementation of an educational program that included approval of a unit-based guideline for family presence (FP) during resuscitation and invasive procedures.


A descriptive pretest and posttest design was used to measure changes in perception for FP during resuscitation and invasive procedures.


The setting for this study was a CICU of a large academic medical center.


A convenient sample of HCPs who work in a CICU was included in this study.


Healthcare providers completed the FP scales for confidence and risk-benefit for resuscitation and invasive procedure before and after the implementation of an FP educational program. The program included presentations, discussions, and collaborative guideline development approval with CICU HCPs.


There were 43 HCPs before and 40 HCPs after the FP educational program who completed the FP Confidence and Risk-Benefit Scales. There was improvement in FP Risk Benefit Scale for resuscitation (P < .01), although there was no change in the invasive procedure scale. There was no significant change in confidence for FP for resuscitation or invasive procedures, although there was a trend toward improved scores. There was a significant increase in the number of family members present during resuscitation after the educational program (P < .02).


The conduct of FP educational program and the approval of a unit-based guideline improved HCPs’ perception of risk and benefit of FP during resuscitation and the actual presence of family during resuscitation. This effort provided the infrastructure for FP in the CICU and support for further FP efforts.

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