Bilateral diffuse lung uptake of In-111 pentetreotide (OCT) was observed during a whole-body scan performed in a 68-year-old woman with Cushing's syndrome and suspected ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone secretion. A few days later, she was found to have bilateral bacterial pneumonia (of mixed anaerobic origin). Cushing's syndrome was finally proved to be of pituitary origin. The OCT lung uptake in pneumonia probably resulted from tracer binding by somatostatin receptors on the inflammatory leukocytes. Although the rapid wash-out from experimentally induced abscesses does not make OCT a suitable tracer for detecting acute infections, the images and data here reported suggest that infectious lung disease should be excluded before diagnosing lung involvement by neuroendocrine tumors.