Retroperitoneal malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST), a rare type of neurogenic tumor, was diagnosed in a 14-year-old girl with a history of neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1). Immunochemistry demonstrated spindle cells positive for S-100 protein. The patient had multiple tumor recurrences and she was evaluated with serial F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET). A tumor in the right iliac wing showed increased FDG uptake on PET. FDG-PET played an important role in therapy planning and subsequent follow up. This case emphasizes the important role FDG-PET could play in the staging, restaging, and posttherapy follow up of MPNST.