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The International Study Group of Liver Surgery (ISGLS) proposed a definition and grading system for posthepatectomy liver failure (PHLF). We evaluated the usefulness of residual liver function estimation using 99mTc-galactosyl human serum albumin (99mTc-GSA) for the prediction of PHLF.Patients with liver tumors (n = 136) and scheduled for hepatectomy underwent 99mTc-GSA scintigraphy. Based on their imaging data, the maximal GSA removal rate (GSA-Rmax)was calculated using multicompartment analysis. We also calculated GSA-Rmax in the predicted residual liver (GSA-RL) whose volume was determined on computed tomography (CT) scans. We compared the age, sex, 15-minute indocyanine green retention rate; albumin, bilirubin, hyaluronic acid, and type 4 collagen levels; the Child-Pugh classification; residual liver volume; residual liver percentage; GSA-Rmax; and GSA-RL in patients with and without PHLF. Univariate and multivariate logistic analyses were used for statistical assessments.Of 136 patients, 17 (12.5%) met the ISGLS criteria for PHLF (ISGLS-PHLF). There was a statistically significant difference in the age, albumin level, Child-Pugh classification, residual liver volume, residual liver percentage, GSA-Rmax, and GSA-RL between patients with and without PHLF. Based on multivariate analysis, GSA-RL and the residual liver volume were significant independent predictors of ISGLS-PHLF (P = 0.004 and P = 0.038, respectively). The odds ratio was 149423 for GSA-RL and 1.003 for the residual liver volume.GSA-RL calculated using 99mTc-GSA scintigraphy was the most useful independent predictor for ISGLS-PHLF.