FDG PET/CT in a Case of Human African Trypanosomiasis (Sleeping Sickness)

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Human African trypanosomiasis imported to nonendemic countries is rare. It is very difficult to establish the correct diagnosis of human African trypanosomiasis in nonendemic areas. We present a case of human African trypanosomiasis with MRI and FDG PET/CT findings. Head MRI showed hyperintense areas in bilateral internal capsules. Abdominal and pelvic MRI showed hepatosplenomegaly and multiple enlarged lymph nodes. FDG PET/CT showed generalized hypermetabolic lymph nodes, diffuse FDG uptake of the spleen, and hepatosplenomegaly mimicking lymphoma. In addition, FDG PET/CT revealed decreased FDG uptake in the medial occipital cortex and cardiomegaly with pericardial effusion.

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