Primary central nervous system vasculitis is confined to the brain and spinal cord. While serological markers of inflammation are usually normal, conventional angiography may confirm the diagnosis. The diagnostic method of choice is central nervous system biopsy. A 57-year-old man suffered from a first generalized epileptic seizure. MRI revealed a contrast-enhancing lesion, and O-(2-[18F]fluoroethyl)-L-tyrosine amino acid PET displayed increased metabolic activity, both findings highly suggestive of a malignant glioma. Surprisingly, histology obtained following stereotactic biopsy revealed small-vessel vasculitis.