Promoting Testicular Cancer Awareness and Screening: A Systematic Review of Interventions

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Abstract

Background:

Testicular cancer (TC) is a relatively curable malignancy that predominantly affects young males. Key decision makers discourage TC screening because of lack of evidence about the benefits of this practice, whereas others argue that men must be aware of normal versus abnormal testicular findings. Despite the debate on TC surveillance, a number of research efforts are still being made to increase men’s awareness of TC and its screening.

Objective:

The aim of this study was to systematically review studies that were conducted to enhance men’s knowledge and awareness regarding TC and its screening and increase their TC screening intentions and practices.

Methods:

Studies published in English between 2004 and 2014 were reviewed using 3 e-databases, and interventions that were in line with the review aims were selected.

Results:

A total of 3076 records were screened for eligibility, and 11 studies met the inclusion criteria. The majority of the reviewed interventions successfully enhanced men’s awareness of TC and its screening and increased their intentions to perform testicular self-examination. Examples include videos about TC, shower gel sachets, stickers, and posters, a television show, a university campaign, and high self-efficacy messages about TC screening. Men at risk of health disparities were underrepresented in the reviewed literature.

Conclusions:

A number of interesting channels through which men can learn about TC were identified. Examples include social media and mass media.

Implications for Practice:

Given the controversy that surrounds TC screening, nurses can play a key role in increasing men’s awareness of TC rather than advising periodical TC self-examination.

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