New Educational Model to Promote Breast Cancer–Preventive Behaviors (ASSISTS): Development and First Evaluation

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The prevalence of breast cancer in Iran has increased. An effective approach to decrease the burden of breast cancer is prevention.


The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate an educational model, called the ASSISTS, for promoting breast cancer–preventive behaviors in women.


A multiphase method was used to develop the model designed to promote breast cancer prevention behaviors. A conceptual model was generated based on a secondary analysis of qualitative data. Then, a structural equation model technique was used to test the relationships among the model constructs.


The analysis revealed that 7 constructs could be extracted, namely, perceived social support, attitude, motivation, self-efficacy, information seeking, stress management, and self-care. Based on these constructs, a conceptual model was built and tested using structural equation modeling. The model fit was good, and the model confirmed significant relationships among the 7 constructs of breast cancer prevention.


Findings revealed that self-care behavior and stress management are influenced directly by attitude, motivation, self-efficacy, information seeking, and social support. In addition, women seek more information when they are motivated, have more self-efficacy, have a more positive attitude toward breast cancer prevention, and experience more social support.

Implication for Practice

Cancer nurses can be at the forefront of breast cancer prevention. Because they can play a pivotal role in providing information, they can reduce women's stress and increase their self-care behavior. In addition, their social support can positively influence Iranian women's attitude, motivation, and self-care behavior. Furthermore, implementing educational programs based on this model might encourage women to practice preventive behaviors.

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