|| Checking for direct PDF access through Ovid
To examine the recent advances on epidemiological studies, diagnostic approach and clinical management of local allergic rhinitis (LAR) in adults and children.Evidence about LAR is growing especially in pediatric and Asian populations. The prevalence of LAR is lower in Asian countries compared with western countries in both children and adults. LAR is considered a chronic condition and an independent rhinitis phenotype that affects up to 26.5% of nonatopic rhinitis patients. The disease rapidly progress toward the clinical worsening with associated onset of asthma and conjunctivitis, which further impairs patient's quality of life. Nasal Allergen Provocation Test is the diagnostic gold standard that can be complemented by basophil activation test and the detection of specific IgE in nasal secretions. Allergen immunotherapy induces a significant and early improvement in both clinical symptoms and quality of life in LAR patients.LAR is a common entity, with different prevalence depending on geographical locations. LAR has to be considered in the process of differential diagnosis in children and adults with rhinitis. Diagnosis of LAR is crucial in order to start an etiologic treatment such as allergen immunotherapy, which has proven to be very effective in these patients.