DNA ploidy has been studied in 31 paraffin-embedded specimens of oral leukoplakia and in 10 specimens of oral leukoplakia that have undergone malignant transformation after a 5-year observation period. Three out of 31 specimens (9.7%) showed an aneuploid DNA pattern, with DNA indices of 1.17, 1.28 and 1.32. It was not possible to establish a statistically significant difference of DNA ploidy related to the presence or absence of dysplasia. One out of the 10 oral leukoplakias that underwent malignant transformations had a multiploid pattern with DNA indices of 1.44 and 2.37. In this study the DNA index has not proved to be of value in the identification of dysplastic leukoplakia among the non-dysplastic ones.