Fluid replacement for hypotensive injury victims: how, when and what risks?

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Intravenous fluid administration is considered universally indicated for patients with post-traumatic hypotension of presumed hemorrhagic origin, regardless of the mechanism of injury, anatomic location, and whether hemostasis has been achieved. This premise is based primarily on animal studies in which blood loss results from a controlled catheter withdrawal. However, more recent hemorrhage models that incorporate a vascular injury, as well as recently completed clinical trials, have indicated that attempts to restore blood pressure before surgical hemostasis may have the undesirable effects of accentuating hemorrhage and mortality.

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