Low-dose spinal anaesthesia for Caesarean section to prevent spinal-induced hypotension

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Purpose of review

The present review evaluates the evidence available in the literature to see whether low-dose spinal anaesthesia for Caesarean section is effective in preventing maternal hypotension while at the same time guaranteeing effective anaesthetic conditions.

Main findings

From prospective trials, it is clear that lowering the spinal dose improves maternal haemodynamic stability. Doses of intrathecal bupivacaine between 5 and 7 mg are sufficient to provide effective anaesthesia. Complete motor block is, however, seldom achieved and adequate anaesthesia is limited in time.


Low-dose spinal anaesthesia as part of a combined spinal–epidural technique is a valuable method in improving maternal and fetal outcome during anaesthesia for operative delivery.

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