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The current review will discuss the current literature on genetics of pain and analgesia, with special emphasis on perioperative setting. We will also discuss pharmacogenetics-based management guidelines, current clinical status and future perspectives.Recent literature suggests that the interindividual variability in pain and postoperative analgesic response is at least in part because of one's genetic make-up. Some of the well characterized polymorphisms that are associated with surgical pain and opioid-related postoperative adverse outcomes are described in catechol-O-methyl transferase, CYP2D6 and μ-opioid receptor (OPRM1), ATP-binding cassette subfamily B member 1, ABCC3, organic cation transporter 1 genes. Clinical Pharmacogenetics Implementation Consortium has put forth recommendations on CYP2D6 genotype-based opioid selection and dosing. The list of drug–gene pairs studied continue to expand.Pharmacogenetic approach marks the dawn of personalized pain medicine both in perioperative and chronic pain settings.