Endometriomas are common in reproductive-aged women, but controversy exists regarding their management. PubMed was searched to identify pertinent studies on outcomes of medical and surgical management of endometrioma, with focus on randomized controlled trials and meta-analyses. Surgical excision is more effective than fenestration/coagulation of endometrioma for pelvic pain but decreases antimullerian hormone. It may modestly improve the chances of spontaneous pregnancy, but does not impact chances of success with in vitro fertilization. Oral contraceptive pills improve dysmenorrhea but not dyspareunia or noncyclic pelvic pain. Management of the patient with endometrioma should be individualized based on each patient’s particular symptoms and short-term and long-term fertility goals.