Vasomotor symptoms are the most common manifestation of the menopause transition and postmenopausal phases of reproductive life. They interfere not only in quality of life, but also contribute to sleep and mood disturbances that potentially compromise home and work effectiveness. Treatment options include hormone therapy (HT), nonhormonal prescription drugs, mind body and behavior therapies, and over-the-counter preparations. Evidence confirms that HT is the most effective option. The initial reticence to prescribe HT immediately following publication of the Women’s Health Initiative has been replaced by clear guidelines for confidently identifying women for whom this therapy will be safe.