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The treatment of atrial fibrillation has experienced a significant evolution over the past two decades. Catheter-based ablation has become a first-line option in various guidelines. In this review, we highlight the recent multicenter ablation studies and the challenges facing this treatment modality.Improved efficacy and safety of an invasive treatment of paroxysmal and persistent atrial fibrillation with catheter ablation.Atrial fibrillation is a major health problem. Catheter ablation has become a standard of care in managing paroxysmal and persistent atrial fibrillation. This treatment modality, however, still faces major challenges, especially in patients presenting with persistent atrial fibrillation.